Markets - Geothermal
The Thorndon Cook Power team is a leading expert in geothermal power and has a wealth of geothermal engineering knowledge and experience globally, which enables us to provide effective services at all stages of development.
For more than 30 years Thorndon Cook Power staff have provided geothermal engineering services on many of the world’s geothermal power projects. We continue to use and apply modern technologies, including the latest hot-rock developments, in a wide range of projects.
Our geothermal energy projects are conceptualised, examined for viability, prepared for financing, and contracted and managed by Thorndon Cook Power staff who understand the factors that drive geothermal power projects. We also understand that every geothermal system is different. That’s why our practical approach to steamfield and plant design, and to solving the myriad of technical issues that arise, supports the identification of cost-effective solutions at all stages of the plant construction cycle.
Thorndon Cook Power offers the services needed to deliver geothermal projects using any geothermal technology, including conventional flash steam cycles, subatmospheric flash steam cycles, binary and combined-cycle technologies, gas extraction and abatement technologies, as well as low-temperature aquifer applications.
In addition to our general services Thorndon Cook provides the following services that are specific to geothermal energy and power generation.
- power station optimisation software, developed in-house for geothermal power plant highest NPV designs.
power station optimisation software, developed in-house for geothermal power plant highest NPV designs.
- integrated optimisation of well, piping and turbine performance for extra generation
integrated optimisation of well, piping and turbine performance for extra generation
- system flow modelling
system flow modelling
- stress analysis
Our team has been involved in the following key projects:
- Karaha and Lumut Balai Geothermal FCRS Design
Karaha and Lumut Balai Geothermal FCRS Design
Thorndon Cook provided Engineering Design services under subcontract to MTL for the Fluid Collection and Reinjection Systems for the Karaha (EPC contractor: Alstom-Hawkins consortium) and Lumut Balai (EPC contractor: Hawkins-Toshiba consortium) geothermal power projects. Services included: development of functional control descriptions support for process engineering support for equipment specification detail engineering (including stress analysis) of steamfield piping
- Imperial Valley Process Engineering
Imperial Valley Process Engineering
Thorndon Cook was engaged to undertake a high level study of generic power plant development costs for 50MW (net) double flash and binary power plant options in the Imperial Valley geothermal area, USA. The scope of work included: Process / Project descriptions for the main components of the steamfield and power plant systems for the double flash and binary options. Generic material specifications appropriate for the Imperial Valley geothermal resource. Calculation of high level heat rate rates for the double flash and binary plant options using generic design parameters that would be generally appropriate for the Imperial Valley resource production and local ambient conditions. Calculation of associated geothermal fluid production requirements for each plant type. Gathering and reinjection system concept design (including two phase flow lines as appropriate), generic layout and sizing of pipelines, vessels, reinjection pumps and other principal steamfield plant in sufficient detail to permit cost estimation. Estimation of quantities for process consumables. Preparation of Process Flow Diagrams (PFDs). Details of curtailment (generation turndown) considerations and limits for both the double flash and binary plant options.
- Lahendong 1x5 MW EPC Engineering
Lahendong 1x5 MW EPC Engineering
Pertamina Geothernmal Energy (PGE) planned to build and operate Small Scale Geothermal Power Plant 1 x 5MW-GROSS including its support facilities in the Lahendong Area. JFE intended to bid for the Project as a main contractor and engaged Thorndon Cook to provide bid engineering services for the small scale Geothermal Power Plant and Fluid Collection and Reinjection System. Thorndon Cook carried out power cycle optimisation and preliminary design to determine size, capacity and specification of major equipment and materials for JFE’s cost estimation, including piping, separator, vent system, steam scrubber, condenser, cooling tower and basin, gas removal system, hotwell pumps, auxiliary cooling water pump, control valves and associated piping and fittings.
- Tiwi and Makban Geothermal Plants DD
Tiwi and Makban Geothermal Plants DD
TCP was engaged as technical advisor by Mott McDonald Thailand to perform a full due diligence of all existing assets at Tiwi (330 MW) and Makban (450 MW) fields, owned and operated by Aboitiz. The end client was a pool of Bankers and the due diligence aimed at assessing risks and possible mitigations to ensure the long term reliable operation of both plants.
- Ngatamariki Mix Plant Design
Ngatamariki Mix Plant Design
The geothermal production wells at Mighty River Power’s (MRP) Ngatamariki (NTM) steam field are susceptible to calcite scaling within the well casing, which causes a loss of production. Thorndon Cook was engaged by MRP to undertake the detailed design of a continuous inline mixing plant for calcite inhibition antiscalant to supply well-pad based delivery systems injecting diluted antiscalant into the wells below the flash point. Thorndon Cook delivered the complete detailed design consisting of a set of drawings, construction specifications, tables, schedules and data sheets that comprised the technical documents for MRP’s request for supply and installation tenders.
- Akiira Due Diligence
Akiira Due Diligence
Thorndon Cook was engaged by the financiers for the proposed 2x 35MW Akiira geothermal project in Kenya to undertake a technical due diligence of the proposed project and to highlight any significant risk areas and how such risks could be mitigated. In particular, Thorndon cook reviewed: The Akiira geothermal resource to ensure that it was likely to be of adequate size and quality for the development proposed The Akiira drilling plans and schedule for reasonableness. The project schedule to ensure all major activities were shown, and that timing and durations of these activities were reasonable. The project concept design to ensure that it was technically feasible, and technology chosen well proven commercially. The project capital cost estimates for completeness and reasonableness. Preparation of a report showing all likely project risks and how these could be mitigated.
- Indonesian Geothermal Feasibility Study
Indonesian Geothermal Feasibility Study
Thorndon Cook were engaged by a Turkish Company to undertake an independent third party due diligence/review of the results of the scientific exploration work conducted over 5 geothermal prospect areas in Sumatra and East Java, Indonesia
- Remnant Life Assessment Study for TG2 Binary Plant
Remnant Life Assessment Study for TG2 Binary Plant
Thorndon Cook was engaged by Nova Energy to conduct a remnant life assessment for the 22 year old Kawerau TG2 binary power plant. The scope of work included detailed assessment of the condenser, preheaters, vaporiser, turbine and generator. The key scope included: A Life Assessment Report that can be used to support a wider assessment of the safety and integrity of the plant An independent audit of the tube corrosion tests (Acoustic Eye results). Calculation of the level of conservatism designed into the preheaters and vaporizer tube thicknesses and provide recommendations on the acceptance/rejection criteria for the tubes with regards to wall thickness. Recommendations on any additional testing required to establish adequate remnant life. Recommendations on preventative maintenance testing going forward for each of the main items of equipment.
- Nga Awa Purua 140 MW Geothermal Power Station
Nga Awa Purua 140 MW Geothermal Power Station
Thorndon Cook was engaged by Mighty River Power to undertake a review of the KPIs and KOPs for the power station and steamfield Operation and Maintenance contracts between MRP and the Nga Awa Purua JV and Rotokawa JV respectively.
- Wayang Windu I and II Rebuild
Wayang Windu I and II Rebuild
In May 2015 shortly after Wayang Windu Unit I had been shut down for overhaul, a landslide in the steamfield swept away several hundreds of metres of steamfield piping, and with tragic loss of life. It was decided to bring forward the overhaul of the second unit, and following the strip down and inspection by SBS Indonesia/Progen, both units were placed in preservation. The rebuild was undertaken by SBS Indonesia/Progen and commenced at the end of July 2015. TCP provided a specialist project manager to manage the rebuild process. Features of the rebuild included: Coordination of international turbine specialists and local technical skills. Worked closely with plant owner and OEM, Fuji Electric Units rebuilt to meet manufacturer’s tolerances, with careful alignment and clearance checks of all rotating parts. several new components and refurbished components incorporated lower casing level adjustment
- Due Diligence of the Alasehir-I and II and Maspo Geothermal Projects
Due Diligence of the Alasehir-I and II and Maspo Geothermal Projects
Thorndon Cook was engaged by Akfen Energy to undertake a pre-purchase Scientific and Engineering Due Diligence of the Turkerler Alasehir-I and II power plants and geothermal concession, and the Maspo geothermal concession. Thorndon Cook associated with PB Turkey for this project and subcontracted Middle Earth Geothermal for the geoscience scope. The work included an initial home-office based document review of available reports and performance data covering field and power plant operations followed by a site visit to enable the preparation and presentation of a preliminary risk matrix before the final due diligence report.
- Wayang Windu Geothermal Assets Due Diligence
Wayang Windu Geothermal Assets Due Diligence
Thorndon Cook Power staff were engaged by a potential investor to provide an objective and independent technical assessment of the geothermal assets owned by Star Energy Company Pte Ltd. Two Due Diligence Reports were provided to support the client in their valuation of the Wayang Windu geothermal assets and with the preparation of their bid to acquire a shareholding position within Star Energy Company Pte Ltd.
- Rainbow Power Project
Rainbow Power Project
Rainbow Holdings (RH) has purchased the geothermal site nearby Poihipi power station and the Wairakei geothermal field in Taupo, New Zealand. One 2,031-metre well was completed in 2006 and some other production infrastructure is in place. RH is aiming to have a 60 MW geothermal plant operating in 2016. The development proposal would involve the drilling of a number of further production wells and reinjection wells. The members of Thorndon Cook Power were engaged as the developer’s engineer to assist RH by providing well test management and supervision, assessment of the well test results, and recommendations based on this assessment and the well history. Thorndon Cook Power staff were also requested to provide review of the previous works undertaken by Glucina & Associates, and finally provide the recommendations of this project development.
- N2N Geothermal Power Plant Relocation
N2N Geothermal Power Plant Relocation
Members of Thorndon Cook Power were engaged by First Gen/EDC as owner's engineer to provide all engineering support and project management for the dismantling, transportation and re-installation of a 50MW geothermal power plant on the Island of Negros. The work included preparing scope of works and EPC specifications, bid evaluation of proposal by Fuji, design review, site construction and installation management and supervision.
- Te Mihi Geothermal Power Station
Te Mihi Geothermal Power Station
Our team was significantly involved as part of Parsons Brinckerhoff which formed a Joint Venture (JV) with McConnell Dowell Constructors Limited and SNC-Lavalin Constructors Inc for the delivery of the EPC (Engineer, Procure, Construct) contract for the 2 x 83 MW Te Mihi power station. Our primary role, within the fully integrated JV, was to deliver the engineering and design for the project with ongoing technical support to the procurement and construction activities. Thorndon Cook staff members also took a lead role during plant commissioning and performance testing. Members of our team were responsible for all the detailed power plant design, including conceptual design, plant optimisation, BOP detailed engineering, performance guarantees, preparation of sub vendor packages, design drawings and documentation, site construction engineering support and commissioning support.
- Rotokawa Steam Purity Improvement
Rotokawa Steam Purity Improvement
Detailed engineering study, detailed design, and preparation of technical specifications for a new steam scrubbing system for a hybrid topping steam turbine, bottoming binary cycle geothermal power plant. The solutions addressed both liquid carry-over and vapour phase impurities with a mixture of condensation scrubbing, steam washing and moisture scrubbing.
- Menengai 35 MW Geothermal
Menengai 35 MW Geothermal
Thorndon Cook Power staff provided technical and commercial advice to TransCentury and Civicon regarding assessment of involvement in a potential EPC contract for a 35MW geothermal power station on the Menengai geothermal field, Kenya. Detailed review of OEM sub-vendor offer for the main power plant equipment. Assessment of BOP proposals and determination of overall project EPC cost estimate. Preparation of Board presentation for management on the findings.
- Karaha Bodas 30MW Geothermal Power Plant
Karaha Bodas 30MW Geothermal Power Plant
Staff from Thorndon Cook Power were involved in bid engineering for including steamfield Front End Engineering Design, sizing and optimisation of equipment and pipelines, producing steamfield Heat and Mass Balances, PFDs and P&IDs, preliminary layout drawings, bills of materials and equipment specifications for project costings.
- Due Diligence Investigation of the Tawau Geothermal Project
Due Diligence Investigation of the Tawau Geothermal Project
Thorndon Cook Power staff were engaged by a potential investor to provide an objective and independent technical assessment of the Tawau geothermal power project. The Tawau geothermal power project is the first geothermal power plant project in Malaysia located at Apas Kiri, Tawau District in the east coast of the state of Sabah in Malaysian Borneo. Tawau Green Energy (TGE) has procured all approvals required to commence geothermal exploration and design, construction, operation and maintenance of a 36MWe (gross) power plant.
- Pertamina Geothermal (PGE) Training
Pertamina Geothermal (PGE) Training
Thorndon Cook Power Staff were engaged by Pertamina Geothermal (PGE) to provide specialised training to its new graduates and more experienced staff as part of its ambitious development program in Indonesia.
- New Northern Negros 5MW Front End Engineering Design (FEED)
New Northern Negros 5MW Front End Engineering Design (FEED)
Members of Thorndon Cook Power were responsible for process, mechanical input and overall preparation of report to identify suitable modular technology options for a new geothermal power plant installation. Objective was to maximize the conversion of the available geothermal resource steam energy to electricity, and minimise the overall life cycle costs. Also they provided the rationale and recommendations for specific requirements to be incorporated into the plant Minimum Functional Specifications (MFS).
- Taheke Geothermal Power Plant Concept Study
Taheke Geothermal Power Plant Concept Study
Members of Thorndon Cook Power were engaged by Contact Energy to undertake a conceptual design of a 40MW geothermal power plant. The work included an investigation and review of a number of technology options including single flash, dual flash, ORC, and BCC and a report with recommendations as to the preferred option. Process flows were derived; plant performance was simulated using in-house software and a preliminary environmental assessment based on plant inputs and discharges made. The work also included the concept design of the steam field, pipe routes, separator and power plant location options investigation.
- Raja Basa 2 x 110 MW Geothermal Feasibility Study
Raja Basa 2 x 110 MW Geothermal Feasibility Study
Thorndon Cook Power team members were engaged to provide conceptual engineering and pre-feasibility study including assessment of capex, opex and economics for various development scenarios and technologies as part of the bidding process for the field development concession. Feasibility investigations were completed for a 220 MW development at this green field site including resource assessment, conceptual engineering of both steam field and power plant, preparation of PFDs and PID’s, optimisations, performance modelling, chemical issues investigations, capex and opex estimation and economic analysis.
- Bacman Rehabilitation
First Gen Corporation/EDC engaged Thorndon Cook Power staff to provide the engineering and project management for the full rehabilitation of the power plants. The work included preparing scope of works and specifications, bid evaluation of sub-vendor proposals, site construction management and supervision.
- Baturaden Geothermal Due Dilligence
Baturaden Geothermal Due Dilligence
PT Trinergy was awarded the rights to develop the Baturaden Geothermal Concession area in Indonesia. Trinergy offered PT Adaro the opportunity to take a major share in the project. Thorndon Cook Staff undertook technical due diligence services for PT Adaro to ensure the project was an attractive investment proposition, and that all significant risks were identified and could be properly managed and mitigated.
- Patuha Front End Engineering Design (FEED)
Patuha Front End Engineering Design (FEED)
From well output and meteorological data Thorndon Cook Power staff were involved with the development of a model to optimise the sizing of critical steamfield and power plant components using its proprietary in-house geothermal plant optimisation and performance software. The outputs from the model were then used to refine plant layouts and provide basic specifications for those components. On completion of the FEED, EPC technical specifications were prepared for both the steam field and power plant. By such optimisation, we were able to add at least a further 2MW generation from more efficient use of the resource.
- Suoh Sekincau 400MW Geothermal Project
Suoh Sekincau 400MW Geothermal Project
Thorndon Cook Power staff were engaged by Origin Energy to provide the power plant technical information for their bid for the Suoh Sekincau geothermal concession area. The work included concept design for both single flash and dual flash technology options, plant layouts, preliminary optimisation and performance simulation, well flow rate requirements, technology review and choice, Capex and Opex estimations, development of P&IDs and PFDs, and environmental impact preliminary assessments.
- Northern Negros 50MW Geothermal Power Plant Project
Northern Negros 50MW Geothermal Power Plant Project
Thorndon Cook Power staff were engaged with WESTJEC to undertake owners engineering services for this JBIC funded project. The scope of work included market study, transmission line study, power plant concept engineering, preparation of the majority of the technical specifications for EPC tender, assistance during tendering, EPC tender evaluation, and assistance with design review and site supervision.
- PNOC-EDC Sale
Due diligence assessment for First Gen Corporation of 1,100MW of EDC geothermal assets, (resource, steam field and power plant assets) including investigation, concept engineering and feasibility of further geothermal project development possibilities, sizing, pre-engineering and costing. The work included concept engineering, plant and steam field optimisation, and cost estimation of a number of modifications, improvements, plant repair and rehabilitation options, and plant performance simulation and pre -feasibility investigations of further expansion opportunities.
- Sarulla 330 MW Geothermal Power Project
Sarulla 330 MW Geothermal Power Project
Thorndon Cook Power staff were engaged by PT Medco to provide scientific and engineering due diligence investigations for the project including a critical review of plans, costs and pre-engineering undertaken by others. The work also included a detailed review and technical evaluation of the Ormat EPC proposal, detailed resource review and re-evaluation, and review of well planning, and the numerical simulation modelling of both the Silangkitang and Namora resources. The work also included the evaluation of other technical options for Sarulla including concept engineering and cost estimation of single and dual flash alternatives.
- Darajat III Geothermal Power Station
Darajat III Geothermal Power Station
The Darajat geothermal resource is located in West Java, approximately 40 km south-east of Bandung, the major provincial city of the region, and 150 km south-east of Jakarta. It is located near two other geothermal fields that Thorndon Cook Power staff have had close involvement with - the Kamojang geothermal field and the Wayang Windu geothermal field. Thorndon Cook staff were involved with Darajat III in providing the engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) bid process and bid evaluation. Then during the implementation phase staff provided site engineering management and construction monitoring services.
- Kawerau 90 MW Geothermal Power Station
Kawerau 90 MW Geothermal Power Station
Staff from Thorndon Cook Power were engaged by Toshiba and Thiess to provide the conceptual design, plant optimisation, performance guarantees, preparation of subvendor packages and assistance with pricing for the Thiess-Toshiba EPC bid for this project.
- Lahendong 1 x 20 MW Unit 2 Geothermal Power Station
Lahendong 1 x 20 MW Unit 2 Geothermal Power Station
Thorndon Cook Power staff were engaged by Toshiba and Thiess to provide the conceptual design, plant optimisation, performance guarantees, preparation of sub-vendor packages and assistance with pricing for the Thiess-Toshiba EPC bid for this project.